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Проблема сохранения редких видов и ключевых орнитологических местообитаний в осваиваемом по проекту «Сахалин-2» регионе


Залив Чайво вместе с другими заливами северо-восточного Сахалина включен в список ключевых орнитологических территорий международного значения. Здесь гнездятся девять видов птиц, включенных в Красную книгу РФ. В их число входит такой знаковый вид, как белоплечий орлан, который также охраняется в рамках двусторонних российско-японских соглашений. Кроме редких видов на заливах и в прибрежной морской акватории во время пролета останавливаются многочисленные стаи мигрирующих птиц, численностью в десятки и сотни тысяч особей.

Реализация проекта «Сахалин-2» сопряжена с риском потенциального воздействия на уязвимые компоненты экосистем, как на стадии строительства, так и на стадии эксплуатации месторождений нефти и газа. В случае нефтяного загрязнения заливов и морской акватории могут пострадать десятки тысяч птиц, а также места обитания редких видов.

Компания Сахалин Энерджи продемонстрировала готовность учитывать важность сохранения природы и предпринимать практические действия в этом направлении. В ходе строительных операций реализуется комплекс мер, направленных на снижение негативного воздействия.

Вместе с тем, недостаточно учитываются средне- и долгосрочные угрозы – такие, например, как аварийные разливы нефти. Возможные последствия воздействия аварийных разливов нефти на орнитофауну могут стать очень серьезными.  Очистка от нефтяного загрязнения водно-болотных угодий – крайне сложная задача, и такие работы оказываются, как правило,  малоэффективными.

Для решения этих проблем и разработки возможных планов действий необходима систематизация имеющейся информации, проведение детальных исследований орнитофауны северо-восточного побережья Сахалина, которое может оказаться в зоне воздействия аварийных разливов нефти, а также организация объективного мониторинга состояния уязвимых компонентов околоводных экосистем.

Комплексность и масштабность задач требует консолидации сил различных исследователей и организаций, работающих в области орнитологии и охраны природы. В этом смысле оценка ситуации на заливе Чайво, выполненная инициативной группой необходимо.



Проблемы сохранения белоплечего орлана и других редких видов птиц северо-восточного Сахалина обсуждались в рамках круглого стола на конференции  «Орнитология, реабилитация и болезни диких животных» 11 ноября 2006 г  Москва. Ниже приводим комментарии специалистов к некоторым вопросам,
Залив Чайво

Замечание 1. We observed a considerable amount of soil eroding into the wetland habitat where Spotted Greenshank was found and Sakhalin Energy Investment Company (SEIC) identified as a key habitat. According to SEIC, the destruction was caused by the Exxon pipeline which runs parallel to the SEIC’s, but there is already a construction road crossing streams along the planned pipeline route, and the influence of their construction is rather evident. Incidentally, SEIC insists the rivers in this area are small streams without salmon and trout spawning, and therefore, the river system itself is not an object to be protected. ①

Комментарий 1.  Нужно отметить, что на морской косе и западном берегу залива Чайво в окрестностях трассы трубопровода, гнездование охотских улитов  в настоящее время не установлено, хотя некоторые участки водно-болотных угодий потенциально пригодны для обитания этого вида. Тщательные обследования  территории, выполненные специалистами ИИЦ «Фауна» (Южно-Сахалинск)  и Амуро-Уссурийского центра биоразнообразия птиц в 2005-2006 гг. не принесли успеха. Однако на косе гнездятся другие редкие виды, такие как белоплечий орлан, алеутская крачка и сахалинский чернозобик.

Действительно, на косе Чайво и западном побережье залива трасса трубопровода не пересекает реки и крупные ручьи, в которых нерестился бы лосось. Вместе с тем, необходимость охраны любых водотоков и прилежащих территорий предписана природоохранным законодательством РФ.



Замечание 2. The pipeline construction which was supposed to be limited during winter time (until March 15th, according to a SEIC’s on-site staff member) due to the nesting activities of Steller’s Sea Eagle was actually extended by 1 month, until April 15th, which we were told by SEIC’s employee (management level). They explained that they had obtained an approval from Dr. Vladimir Mastrov (a Steller’s Sea-Eagle researcher) who was their advisor. It means that their EIA (and its addenda) which SEIC insisted as the results based upon researches of many experts, and supposed to be the ‘Constitution’ and to be respected the most in their construction planning had been easily retracted by an opinion of a single researcher, to speed-up the construction. ②

Комментарий 2.  Решение о переносе трассы трубопровода было принято по инициативе НГО, мотивированной необходимостью охраны мест нагула серых китов в прибрежной зоне между заливами  Чайво и Пильтун. Если раньше трасса проходила вдали от мест гнездования редких и уязвимых видов птиц, то теперь трубопровод вынужден пересекать водно-болотные угодья косы Чайво.

Общественный интерес и давление могут играть как положительную, так и отрицательную роль. Определенные группы природоохранителей порой играют на эмоциях публики и устраивают рекламу своих усилий по защите одних угрожаемых видов без всестороннего анализа возможных негативных последствий для других видов и экосистемы в целом. Изменение трассы трубопровода привело к тому, что возникла острая проблема сохранения редких видов, гнездящихся в непосредственной близости от  нового маршрута  трубопровода на косе и прилегающем побережье залива Чайво. Решение возникшего конфликта интересов возможно путем реализации мер по смягчению воздействия трассы трубопровода на основании результатов изучения экологии и  поведения уязвимых видов.

С этой целью к работе были привлечены ведущие специалисты, имеющие необходимый опыт исследований в данных областях. Изучением экологии и мониторингом популяции белоплечего орлана на Нижнем Амуре и о. Сахалин на протяжении 20 лет занимается к.б.н. В.Б. Мастеров (МГУ им. М.В.Ломоносова). В научных экспедициях В.Б. Мастерова неоднократно принимали участие специалисты по хищным птицам из Wildlife Preservation Bureau of Hokkaido (Japan), Wild Bird Society of Japan, Clemson University (USA), Michigan State University (USA) и др.

Научная группа под руководством В.Б Мастерова в течение последних 3-х лет выполняет комплексный мониторинг состояния популяции белоплечего орлана  на северо-восточном побережье о. Сахалин, где под наблюдением находятся около 300 гнездовых участков. Результаты мониторинга и рекомендации по смягчению хозяйственного воздействия (включающие организацию охраняемых буферных зон вокруг гнезд орланов, их кормовых участков, охотничьих присад птиц и др.) были доложены на рабочем совещании СЭИК по охране редких видов (Южно-Сахалинск, 2006) и получили положительную оценку экспертов – орнитологов Е.Г. Лобкова (Росприроднадзор по Камчатской области), Ю.Н. Герасимова (Камчатский ин-т экологии и природопользования ДВО РАН), В.Г.Бабенко (Московский Государственный Педагогический Университет), а также William Bowerman (Clemson University) и др.

В окрестностях обсуждаемого отрезка трассы существует четыре гнездовых участка белоплечих орланов. Для каждого из них был разработан детальный план, предписывающий необходимые ограничения сроков и видов строительных работ, а также другие мероприятия для сохранения гнездящихся пар. Строительство трубопровода в осенне-зимний период позволило бы снизить воздействие до минимального уровня и обеспечить приемлемые условия для гнездования птиц.

Наиболее сложная ситуация сложилась с гнездовым участком CHV-33, расположенным в непосредственной близости от трассы на косе зал. Чайво. В 2005 г. обитаемое  гнездо этой пары разорил медведь, два других гнезда разрушились под натиском непогоды. Вернувшиеся весной орланы столкнулись с необходимостью строительства нового гнезда, на что  в природе у птиц обычно уходит  один-два сезона. Положение усугублялась также тем обстоятельством, что компания «Старстрой», выполняющая укладку трубопровода, не успела завершить строительство к 15 марта, как это было предписано в плане по смягчению воздействия.

Наблюдения за поведением данной пары орланов с 25 марта вел приглашенный СЭИК специалист-орнитолог из Биолого-почвенного Института ДВО РАН. После оценки текущей ситуации экспертом В. Мастеровым, строительные работы  в окрестности буферных  зон были полностью приостановлены до окончания периода гнездования орланов. В 2006 г. пара орланов CHV-33 так и не загнездилась, однако, на трех других участках орланы благополучно вырастили потомство (шесть птенцов!). Таким образом, принятые меры оказались достаточно эффективными.

Подробные отчеты, акты и рекомендации по охране  гнездовых участков орланов вдоль трассы трубопровода были переданы в СЭИК и УПР по Сахалинской области. Можно рекомендовать для  дальнейших экспертных оценок использовать эту  информацию, основанную на результатах комплексных полевых исследований,  вместо  опросных данных из сомнительных источников.



Замечание 3. On the sand spit on the other side of Chaivo Lagoon, most of the pipeline construction were already completed. The pipes laid under water through the wetlands, small lakes and ponds were only treated with surface coating. We did not recognize any special measures taken to prevent oil leak accidents. ③

Комментарий 3.  В весенне-летний период все работы по строительству трубопровода на косе Чайво были приостановлены с целью снижения воздействия на гнездящиеся редкие и уязвимые виды.



Замечание 4. We observed pipelines constructed only 300 m away from a nest of Steller’s Sea-Eagles on the spit across the lagoon. SEIC’s on-site staff member explained to us that no construction activities had been taken place within 700 m radius from the nest after March 15th as a mitigation measure. We read, however, the work completion date written on 2 pipelines (2 sectors) were April 12th, 2006. (Both of them were newly printed beside the old dates of mid March)

Комментарий 4. Согласно отчету начальника строительного участка Б.Примака (компания «Старстрой»), строительные работы по укладке трубопровода были приостановлены 19 марта.



Замечание 5. We observed soil eroding into marshes along several streams which were supposed to be non-salmon/trout spawning rivers (including some streams with treatments done). An on-site staff member of SEIC clearly stated that even for the salmon-trout spawning rivers where some mud-blocking treatments were installed, it will be necessary to repair those fences (made of cloth) at every rainfall. We can speculate that soil erosions into rivers/streams and marshes were extremely common.

Комментарий 5.  Песчаные и глинистые грунты северо-сахалинской равнины легко подвергаются эрозии при любых видах земельных работ. Мерам по борьбе с эрозией должно уделяться особое внимание при строительстве трубопровода и временных подъездных дорог.


Река Томи

Замечание 6. We observed an active nest of Steller’s Sea-Eagles approximately 100 m from the (pipeline) crossing over Tomi River, which flowed into Dagi Lagoon (we confirmed at least one fledgling in the nest). Besides this active nest, we observed another nest of the same pair within 100 m across the pipeline (we confirmed one adult bird near the nest). Also, a few hundred meters farther from the nest, a third nest which most likely belonged to the same pair was observed. It indicated that the pipeline was dividing the breeding pair’s exclusive nesting territory (crucial area necessary for reproductive activities) into two. The nesting territory was located in riverside forest only left among the wide area burnt by wild fires, and it could be assumed there were very few other places left as good nesting sites except this location.

Furthermore, as we observed more than one nest within extremely close range. It was apparent that the pair had been using this location as a nesting site for many years. It is very difficult to understand why this location was not avoided during the pipeline route planning.

We also observed that the notice signs and fences (at 2 places) to indicate Steller’s Sea-Eagles’ nesting sites were apparently new, compared to other construction-related objects. According to preliminary information from a local source, there could be no clear signs and fences to restrict the entries into the nesting sites of eagles. SEIC’s personnel explained to us that these signs and fences we observed this time had been placed since the winter construction period. (Incidentally, we had informed SEIC in advance that we would like to visit this area.)

Комментарий 6.  Гнездовой участок DAG-16 включает три гнезда (Рис. 1).  По меньшей мере на протяжение последних трех лет (2004-2006 гг.), орланы успешно размножаются в гнезде  DAG-16-151. Гнездо DAG-16-152 в значительной степени разрушено и давно не используется птицами. Гнездо DAG-16-150 находится  в удовлетворительном состоянии. Орланы иногда  используют его в качестве присады. В 60 м восточнее проходит ЛЭП, высокие металлические опоры которой орланы обычно используют как присады.

В месте пересечения трубопроводом р. Томи берега реки укреплены матрасами Рено (Рис. 2),  на пути стока установлены илоулавливающие барьеры. В отсутствие беспокойства со стороны человека, орланы используют образовавшуюся просеку  для охоты, подкарауливая добычу с прибрежных деревьев. Выполнение строительных работ в соответствии с рекомендациями по смягчению воздействия позволило птицам благополучно гнездиться и в 2005 г. и в 2006 г. На границе буферных зон как данного, так и других участков установлены предупреждающие аншлаги, запрещающие нарушать режим охранных зон (Рис. 3). Аншлаги время от времени обновляются, поскольку под воздействием суровых погодных условий приходят в негодность.

Планирование трассы трубопровода осуществлялось с учетом имеющихся данных о пространственном распределении гнездовых участков орланов. Однако к тому моменту не все участки были выявлены.В период строительных работ  сохранение гнездовых участков орланов возможно путем реализации индивидуальных планов по смягчению воздействия, разработанных на основе данных мониторинговых исследований.  

Chaivo Lagoon together with other bays of the NE Sakhalin is included into the List of Important Bird Areas of International Value. Nine bird species protected by Red Book of Russian Federation breed here. Amongst them is such remarkable species as the Steller’s Sea Eagle, which is also protected by two-side Russia-Japan agreements. Besides rare species, numerous flocks of migratory birds stop on the lagoons and coastal marine areas during their migrations, whose numbers can reach tens or hundreds thousands individuals.

Realization of the Sakhalin-2 Project is connected with the risk of potential impact of development of oil and gas fields on vulnerable components of ecosystems, both at their construction and operation stages. In case of pollution of lagoons and sea water by oil, tens thousands birds may be affected, as well as habitats of rare species.

Sakhalin Energy Investment Company showed its willingness to consider importance of nature protection and to apply practical measures in this direction. During construction operations, a complex of measures is realized, which is aimed at mitigation of impact of construction on wildlife.

At the same time, long-term and medium-term risks, such as oil-spill accidents, are underestimated. Possible consequences of oil-spill accidents can be very serious. Oil spill response in wetlands is extremely complicated and usually insufficiently effective.

To resolve these problems and elaborate measure plans, systematization of available information, detailed studies of avifauna which potentially may be affected by oil-spill accidents, and organization of objective monitoring of vulnerable components of semi-aquatic ecosystems are necessary.

The complexity and broad-scale character of these purposes requires consolidation of efforts of different researchers, doing in the field of ornithology and nature conservation. In this respect, the assessment of current situation in Chaivo Lagoon, performed by the initiative group, is an important step in this direction.

Problems of conservation of the Steller’s Sea Eagle and other rare bird species of NE Sakhalin were discussed within the framework of the Round Table at the Conference of the Russian Bird Conservation Union “Ornithology, rehabilitation, and diseases of wild animals” on 11th November, 2006 in Moscow. Below we present comments of experts on some subjects discussed in his letter.


Chaivo Lagoon

Note 1. We observed a considerable amount of soil eroding into the wetland habitat where Spotted Greenshank was found and Sakhalin Energy Investment Company (SEIC) identified as a key habitat. According to SEIC, the destruction was caused by the Exxon pipeline which runs parallel to the SEIC’s, but there is already a construction road crossing streams along the planned pipeline route, and the influence of their construction is rather evident. Incidentally, SEIC insists the rivers in this area are small streams without salmon and trout spawning, and therefore, the river system itself is not an object to be protected. ①

Comment 1.  It should be noted that by now, there is no evidences of the Spotted Greenshank nesting in the sea spit and western coast of Chaivo lagoon near the pipeline, though some wetland habitats are potentially suitable for the species. Thorough searches in the area, performed in 2005-2006 by experts of the research center “Fauna” (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk) and the Amur-and-Ussuriisk Biodiversity Center, had no result. However, there are other valuable species nesting on the sea spit, such as Steller’s Sea Eagle, Aleutian Tern and Sakhalin Dunlin.

It is true that in the spit and western coast of Chaivo the pipeline route does not cross any large rivers and large streams where Salmon spawning could occur. From the other hand, according to nature conservation legislation of the Russian Federation, any watercourses and their adjacent areas should be protected.



Note 2. The pipeline construction which was supposed to be limited during winter time (until March 15th, according to a SEIC’s on-site staff member) due to the nesting activities of Steller’s Sea Eagle was actually extended by 1 month, until April 15th, which we were told by SEIC’s employee (management level). They explained that they had obtained an approval from Dr. Vladimir Masterov (a Steller’s Sea-Eagle researcher) who was their advisor. It means that their EIA (and its addenda) which SEIC insisted as the results based upon researches of many experts, and supposed to be the ‘Constitution’ and to be respected the most in their construction planning had been easily retracted by an opinion of a single researcher, to speed-up the construction. ②

Comment 2.  The decision about translocation of the pipeline route was initiated by NGOs and was motivated by need to protect feeding grounds of Grey Wales in the coastal zone between Chaivo and Piltun bays. As a result, while the former pipeline route passed far from nesting grounds of rare and vulnerable bird species, now it has to cross wetlands of Chaivo spit.

Public interest and pressure can be both beneficial and destructive. Certain conservation groups sometimes play on emotions of public, and publicize their efforts to protect some endangered species without comprehensive analysis of possible impacts for other species and for the whole ecosystem. Change of the pipeline route caused another burning issue: conservation of rare species, nesting in the vicinity of the new pipeline route in the spit and adjacent coast of Chaivo bay. Solution of the conflict of interests is possible by realization of mitigation measures, developed on the basis of studies of ecology and behavior of the endangered species.

With this purpose, leading researchers, which have necessary experience in these fields, were involved into the project. Vladimir B. Masterov, PhD in biology, researcher of Moscow State University, has been doing monitoring and studying the ecology of the Steller’s Sea Eagle population in Amur land and Sakhalin for 20 years. Other raptor experts from Wildlife Preservation Bureau of Hokkaido (Japan), Wild Bird Society of Japan, Clemson University (USA), Michigan State University (USA), etc. repeatedly participate in the research expeditions headed by V. Masterov.

During last 3 years, research group of V. Masterov has been performing the complex monitoring of population state of the Steller’s Sea Eagle in NE Sakhalin, at that about 300 nest sites are under supervision.

Results of the monitoring and recommendations on mitigation of impact on sea eagles (including establishment of protection buffer zones around sea eagle nests, feeding grounds, hunting perches, etc.) were reported in the workshop of SEIC on rare species protection (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, 2006), and gained appreciation of expert ornithologists — E. G. Lobkov (Russian Nature Supervision Service (Rosprirodnadzor) in Kamchatka region), Yu. N. Gerasimov (Kamchatka Institute of Ecology and Nature Management of Far East Department of RAS), V. G. Babemko (Moscow State Pedagogical University), William Bowerman (Clemson University), and other experts.

There are four nest sites of Steller’s sea eagles in the vicinity of the discussed section of the pipeline route. For each of them, special detailed plans were elaborated, which contain necessary limitations of time and types of construction works, and necessary measures for protection of nesting pairs. Restriction of pipeline construction activities within autumn-winter period would allow to minimize the impact and to provide acceptable conditions for bird nesting.

The most complicated situation arose about nest site CHV-33, situated in the immediate vicinity of the pipeline route in the spit of Chaivo lagoon. In 2005, the active nest of the pair was destroyed by bear, and the rest two nests were destroyed by bad weather conditions. After their return to nesting grounds in the spring, sea eagles faced with necessity to construct a new nest (such construction usually takes 1-2 seasons). In addition, the situation was aggravated by the “Starstroy” company, which performs laying of the pipeline. The company had not completed construction works by 15 March as it was prescribed by mitigation plan.

Since 25 March, the sea eagle pair and bird behavior was under supervision by the expert ornithologist from Biology and Soil Institute of Far East RAS, invited by SEIC. After assessment of current situation, made by expert Vladimir Masterov, all construction works were stopped until the end of nesting season of sea eagles. Despite this, the sea eagle pair did not begin nesting in the nest site in 2006; however, in other 3 nest sites sea eagles successfully raised their offspring (6 chicks!). Therefore, the taken measures were enough effective.

Detailed reports, recommendations and other documents concerning protection of sea eagle nest sites along the pipeline route were passed to SEIC and Department of Nature Resources in Sakhalin Region. This information, based on results of complex field investigations, is recommended to use for further expert assessments, instead of answering data from dubious sources.



Note 3. On the sand spit on the other side of Chaivo Lagoon, most of the pipeline construction were already completed. The pipes laid under water through the wetlands, small lakes and ponds were only treated with surface coating. We did not recognize any special measures taken to prevent oil leak accidents. ③

Comment 3. In the spring-summer period, all activities on pipeline construction in Chaivo spit were stopped in order to minimize impact of the construction on rare and vulnerable nesting species.



Note 4.  We observed pipelines constructed only 300 m away from a nest of Steller’s Sea-Eagles on the spit across the lagoon. SEIC’s on-site staff member explained to us that no construction activities had been taken place within 700 m radius from the nest after March 15th as a mitigation measure. We read, however, the work completion date written on 2 pipelines (2 sectors) were April 12th, 2006. (Both of them were newly printed beside the old dates of mid March)

Comment 4. According to the report of the Chief of the construction plot B. Primak (“Starstroy” company), construction works on the pipeline laying were stopped on 19, March.



Note 5. We observed soil eroding into marshes along several streams which were supposed to be non-salmon/trout spawning rivers (including some streams with treatments done). An on-site staff member of SEIC clearly stated that even for the salmon-trout spawning rivers where some mud-blocking treatments were installed, it will be necessary to repair those fences (made of cloth) at every rainfall. We can speculate that soil erosions into rivers/streams and marshes were extremely common.

Comment 5.  Sandy and clayey soils of the Northern Sakhalin Plane are easily eroding at any types of digging activities. Measures for control of erosion are of primary importance at construction of the pipeline and access roads.


Tomi River

Note 6. We observed an active nest of Steller’s Sea-Eagles approximately 100 m from the (pipeline) crossing over Tomi River, which flowed into Dagi Lagoon (we confirmed at least one fledgling in the nest). Besides this active nest, we observed another nest of the same pair within 100 m across the pipeline (we confirmed one adult bird near the nest). Also, a few hundred meters farther from the nest, a third nest which most likely belonged to the same pair was observed. It indicated that the pipeline was dividing the breeding pair’s exclusive nesting territory (crucial area necessary for reproductive activities) into two. The nesting territory was located in riverside forest only left among the wide area burnt by wild fires, and it could be assumed there were very few other places left as good nesting sites except this location.

Furthermore, as we observed more than one nest within extremely close range. It was apparent that the pair had been using this location as a nesting site for many years. It is very difficult to understand why this location was not avoided during the pipeline route planning.

We also observed that the notice signs and fences (at 2 places) to indicate Steller’s Sea-Eagles’ nesting sites were apparently new, compared to other construction-related objects. According to preliminary information from a local source, there could be no clear signs and fences to restrict the entries into the nesting sites of eagles. SEIC’s personnel explained to us that these signs and fences we observed this time had been placed since the winter construction period. (Incidentally, we had informed SEIC in advance that we would like to visit this area.)

Comment 6.  Nest site DAG-16 contains three nests (Fig. 1). At least for last three years (2004-2006) sea eagle successfully bred in the nest DAG-16-151. The nest DAG-16-152 is heavily destroyed and it has not been used by birds for a long time. Nest DAG-16-150 is in satisfactory condition. Sea eagles sometimes use it as a perch. There is a power line in 60 m to the East, whose high metal poles are used by sea eagles as perches.

At intersection of the Tomi River and the pipeline, riverbanks are strengthened by Reno mattresses (Fig. 2), and silt barriers are installed on drain paths. Sea Eagles, if not disturbed by humans, use the created clearing for their hunt, perching on riverbank trees and waiting for prey. Implementation  of construction works in compliance with recommendations on impact mitigation allowed birds to nest successfully both in 2005 and 2006. At the borders of buffer zones around the nest site (as well as other nest sites), warning signs are installed, informing about protection regime of buffer zones and prohibiting disturbing birds (Fir. 3). These signs are opportunely renewed, because they outwear with time, being affected by severe weather conditions.

Planning of the pipeline route was performed taking into account data on spatial distribution of sea eagle nest sites. However, by that moment not all nest sites were revealed. During the construction stage, maintaining of sea eagle nest sites is possible via realization of individual mitigation plans, elaborated on the basis of data of monitoring studies.

 

Замечание 7. The construction work on the pipeline crossing Tomi River had been mostly completed in winter time, but we observed several cases of soil erosions and mud inflows into river systems on bare river banks. The company employee stated that they could not do maintenance work as the sites were close to eagle’s nests, but the cause of the problems was the pipeline itself which they had constructed in the Steller’s Sea-Eagles breeding range in first place. We think this kind of problems were predictable beforehand, and it is interesting to hear what kind of maintenance procedures were being planned for this area.

Комментарий 7.  Согласно планам рекультивации, вскрытые участки грунта после завершения строительных работ будут засеяны аборигенными видами трав. Образовавшаяся дернина будет препятствовать эрозии почвы. При выполнении работ по рекультивации в окрестностях гнездовых участков орланов необходимо соблюдать регламентации, предписанные режимом охраны буферных зон.



Замечание 8.  In order to prevent/mitigate the influences of the development on the environment, especially on wildlife, we believe that following steps should be considered:

8.1. Habitat Protection: Securing sufficient distances between the key habitats of wildlife (breeding ground, feeding ground, migration routes, etc.) and the construction sites that would influence the ecosystem①.

Комментарий 8.1.  Трасса трубопровода была спланирована с учетом информации о ключевых местообитаниях наземных животных, имеющейся на то время. Однако в ходе исследований, выполненных на предстроительной и строительной стадии проекта «Сахалин-2» было получено много новых данных о современном статусе редких видов, их пространственном распределении, лимитирующих факторов, воздействующих на устойчивость популяции. В частности, в отношении белоплечих орланов, было установлен значительный элиминирующий эффект пресса хищничества бурого медведя, в результате которого ежегодно погибает до  40-60% птенцов в популяции. Полученная  информация должна учитываться при разработке мер по смягчению воздействия и охране редких видов в осваиваемом по проекту «Сахалин-2» регионе.



8.2.  Risk Prevention: Careful selections of the development areas and sufficient risk prevention measures in order to be prepared for accidents such as oil leaks (besides ① areas)

Комментарий 8.2.  Меры, направленные на предотвращение и ликвидацию аварийных разливов нефти, должны стать приоритетными при строительстве и эксплуатации трубопровода. В этом аспекте большое значение имеет разработка карты уязвимых  территорий, включающей места обитаний редких видов, районы скоплений мигрантов, оценку их численности и сезонной динамики, основные кормовые и защитные местообитания и др. Такая информация позволит разработать оперативные ситуационные планы реагирования на разливы нефти и минимизировать возможный ущерб природной среде.



8.3.  Mitigation of the Development’s Direct Influence : Careful selections of construction time and methods in order to minimize the influence on wildlife found around the development areas ③.

Комментарий 8.3.  Подробные индивидуальные планы по смягчению воздействия были разработаны группой В.Мастерова для охраны гнездовых участков орланов, попадающих в зону потенциального воздействия, переданы в СЭИК и Росприроднадзор по Сахалинской области.



Замечание 9.  From what we have observed, it is difficult to say that the steps ①and ② which ought to be considered more than anything during the project planning were taken sufficiently. Around Chaivo Lagoon, many bird species are found including internationally rare species. Further, along the coastal areas, there exist vulnerable geographic features such as number of line-shaped ponds and vast high-moors. In case of oil leak accidents, the risk that serious environmental damage would occur is extremely high. We conclude that Chaivo Lagoon area should have been avoided as a pipeline route in first place.

The environmental mitigation measures taken in current project are limited in only ③. And as we observed number of cases that made us speculate they were hastening the construction, we were inclined to think that SEIC was rather prioritizing the completion of the project to environmental care.

Комментарий 9.

Ключевая роль северо-восточного Сахалина  для популяции белоплечего орлана, сахалинского чернозобика, алеутской крачки и ряда других редких видов очевидна. Здесь пролегают основные миграционные пути птиц восточноазиатского региона и располагаются важнейшие места остановок мигрантов.

Благодаря положению в сообществе и особенностям биологии орланов, этих хищников можно рассматривать в качестве уникального вида-индикатора состояния околоводных экосистем. К ним относятся:

   Положение на вершине трофической пирамиды, с чем связано:

   ·        Аккумуляция загрязнений, накапливающихся в трофических цепях  с учетом эффекта биомагнификации
   ·        Быстрая реакция на изменения структуры трофических цепей

   Предельный для активных хищников вес тела, с чем связано:

   ·        Ограничение времени машущего полета в среднем около 25 мин./сутки и, соответственно,  ограниченная дальность полетов
   ·        Сравнительно большие затраты  энергии и, соответственно, потребности в пище  как взрослых особей, так птенцов.
   ·        Зависимость от крупной, обильной и легкодоступной добычи.

   Напряженный энергетический бюджет в период выращивания птенцов, определяющий повышенную чувствительность птиц к изменению условий обитания, в частности к воздействию фактора беспокойства.
   Низкие  темпы воспроизводства и большая продолжительность гнездового периода (около 6 месяцев)
   Гнездовой консерватизм, т.е. гнездование птиц на одних и тех же гнездовых участках из поколения в поколение
   Гнездование в узкой прибрежной зоне (в среднем не далее 50-100 м от береговой линии) и тесная связь с кормовыми водоемами
   Значительная площадь участка обитания орланов, покрывающего как зонтиком местообитания других редких видов птиц околоводного комплекса

В условиях хронических антропогенных нагрузок биоиндикаторы суммируют действие всех биологически важных факторов воздействия и отражают их влияние на состояние окружающей среды в целом. Благополучное состояние популяции индикаторного вида свидетельствует о здоровье экосистемы. Поэтому усилия, направленные на сохранение орланов, будут способствовать эффективному сохранению и других редких видов, населяющих водно-болотные угодья северо-восточного Сахалина

Решение сложных проблем сохранения их среды обитания в условиях широкомасштабного освоения природных ресурсов о. Сахалин российскими и зарубежными промышленными компаниями возможно только путем конструктивного и открытого диалога всех заинтересованных лиц.

В основе принятия решений и разработки эффективных систем управления должна лежать исчерпывающая научно обоснованная информация, полученная в ходе кропотливых исследований. В отношении ряда редких видов такие исследования ведутся российскими орнитологами. Однако сложность задачи требует комплексного подхода с привлечением опыта и знаний различных специалистов.

Мы рады сотрудничать со всеми лицами и организациями, искренне заинтересованными в сохранении уязвимой природы Дальнего Востока и, в частности, такого уникального индикаторного вида, как  белоплечий орлан.



Президент
Союза охраны птиц России, к.б.н.                                                              В.А.Зубакин

Вице-президент
Союза охраны птиц России, к.б.н.                                                              В.В.Романов

Руководитель программы
Мониторинга популяции белоплечих орланов, к.б.н.                              В.Б.Мастеров

Note 7. The construction work on the pipeline crossing Tomi River had been mostly completed in winter time, but we observed several cases of soil erosions and mud inflows into river systems on bare river banks. The company employee stated that they could not do maintenance work as the sites were close to eagle’s nests, but the cause of the problems was the pipeline itself which they had constructed in the Steller’s Sea-Eagles breeding range in first place. We think this kind of problems were predictable beforehand, and it is interesting to hear what kind of maintenance procedures were being planned for this area.

Comment 7. According to restoration plans, sections of opened ground will be sown by aboriginal grasses. The formed sod will prevent soil erosion. In the vicinity of nest sites, restoration works should be executed with observance of regulations, prescribed by protection regime of buffer zones.



Note 8. In order to prevent/mitigate the influences of the development on the environment, especially on wildlife, we believe that following steps should be considered:

8.1. Habitat Protection: Securing sufficient distances between the key habitats of wildlife (breeding ground, feeding ground, migration routes, etc.) and the construction sites that would influence the ecosystem①.

Comment 8.1.  The pipeline route was planned, taking into account information on key habitats of ground animals, available by that moment. However, studies, performed at pre-construction and construction stages of the Sakhalin-2 Project produced a lot of new data about current state of rare species, their spatial distribution, and limiting factors, affecting population sustainability. In particular, considerable eliminating effect of brown bears on Steller’s sea eagles was revealed, as a result of which 40-60 % of chicks annually die. The obtained information should be taken into account at elaborating management plans on impact mitigation and rare species protection in the development region of the Sakhalin-2 Project.



8.2. Risk Prevention: Careful selections of the development areas and sufficient risk prevention measures in order to be prepared for accidents such as oil leaks (besides ① areas)

Comment 8.2.  Measures, aimed at prevention and liquidation of oil-spill accidents, should be of primary importance at construction and operation of the pipeline. In this aspect, elaboration of map of key areas is of great importance, including habitats of rare species, areas of concentration of migrating birds, estimations of their numbers and seasonal dynamics, main food and protective habitats, etc. Such information will allow to elaborate operational situation plans of actions at oil spills and to minimize the impact on natural environment.



8.3. Mitigation of the Development’s Direct Influence: Careful selections of construction time and methods in order to minimize the influence on wildlife found around the development areas ③.

Comment 8.3. Detailed individual plans on impact mitigation were elaborated by research group headed by Vladimir Masterov for protection of sea eagles nest sites, situated in the zone of potential impact, and were passed to SEIC and Rozprirodnadzor in Sakhalin Region.



Note  9.  From what we have observed, it is difficult to say that the steps ①and ② which ought to be considered more than anything during the project planning were taken sufficiently. Around Chaivo Lagoon, many bird species are found including internationally rare species. Further, along the coastal areas, there exist vulnerable geographic features such as number of line-shaped ponds and vast high-moors. In case of oil leak accidents, the risk that serious environmental damage would occur is extremely high. We conclude that Chaivo Lagoon area should have been avoided as a pipeline route in first place.

The environmental mitigation measures taken in current project are limited in only ③. And as we observed number of cases that made us speculate they were hastening the construction, we were inclined to think that SEIC was rather prioritizing the completion of the project to environmental care.

Comment 9.

Great importance of NE Sakhalin for populations of the Steller’s Sea Eagle, Sakhalin Dunlin, Aleutian Tern and some other species is obvious. Main migration routes of birds of the East-Asian region pass here, as well as major stops of migratory species.

Due to its role in the community and peculiarities of biology, the Steller’s Sea Eagle can be considered as a unique biosentinel species, indicator of condition of semi-aquatic species. These peculiarities are following:

1. Its top position in food pyramids that leads to:

   ·        Collection of contaminants, accumulated in food chains, with the biomagnification effect
   ·        Quick response to changes in the structure of food chains

2. Maximum possible body weight for active raptors that is connected with:

   ·        Limited time of flapping flight — about 25 min per day and, therefore, limited distance of travels.
   ·        Comparatively great energy expenses and, correspondingly, great food requirements, both in chicks and adults.
   ·        Dependence on large, abundant and easily available prey.

3. Tense energy budget during nesting period, which determines high sensitivity of birds to changes of environmental conditions and to disturbance factor in particular.

4. Slow rates of reproduction and long duration of nesting period (about 6 month).

5. Nesting conservatism, which means birds nesting in the same nest sites across the generations.

6. Nesting in narrow coastal zone (at average no farther than 50-100 m from the water) and tight connection with food water bodies.

7. Large territories that embrace habitats of other rare species of semi-aquatic complex



In the conditions of continuous anthropogenic press, biosentinel species summarize effect of all biologically important factors and reflect their impact to the environment as a whole. Healthy state of the population of a biosentinel species is an evidence of health of the whole ecosystem. Therefore, efforts aimed at protection of sea eagles, will also promote maintaining of other rare species populating wetlands of NE Sakhalin.

Solution of complicated problems of protection of the environment under conditions of broad-scale development of natural resources of Sakhalin Island by Russian and foreign industrial companies is possible only on the basis of constructive and open dialogue of all interested parties.

Making decisions and elaborating effective management systems should be based on comprehensive scientific information, obtained in thorough studies. For some rare species, such studies are being carried out by Russian ornithologists. However, the complexity of the assigned tasks requires complex approach with involvement of experience and knowledge of many different experts.

We are glad to cooperate with all persons and organizations that are sincerely interested in maintaining of vulnerable nature of Far East and, particularly, unique indicator species of the Pacific region, such as the Steller’s Sea Eagle.



President of Russian Bird Conservation Union                                       Dr. V. A. Zubakin

Vice-president of Russian Bird Conservation Union                                           Dr. V. V. Romanov

Leader of the Program of Monitoring
of Steller’s Sea Eagle Population                                                                       Dr. V. B. Masterov




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